Lung Cancer occurs when cancerous cells form in the lungs. It is the most common cancer with no such significant symptoms at an early stage. A person with lung cancer may experience chest pain, difficulty breathing.

In advanced stages of lung cancer, the symptoms may include:

  • Rough breathing
  • Tiredness
  • Weakness
  • Weight loss
  • Blood in sputum
  • Joint pain
  • Headache
  • Cough and chest pain
  • Wheezing

Causes and Risk Factors

 Smoking causes lung cancer. Other risk factors may include asbestos and a hereditary history of cancer. People with no smoking history can also develop cancer. Inhaling the smoke of cigarettes and tobaccos along with the polluted gas can be dangerous either. It damages the lung tissues and grows cancer in the cells.

How smoking plays the major role

According to the doctors, the presence of cancer-causing features in a cigarette may affect the lung tissues. Carcinogens affect the lung while smoking. With exposure to this substance, cells begin to work uncontrollably.

Types of lung cancer

The two- types of lung cancer may include:

  • Small cell lung cancer:  occurs mostly in heavy smokers. It is a rare kind of lung cancer and is also known as ‘oat-cell’ as it looks like an oat in a microscopic view. It spreads rapidly over the other parts of the body. The two types of small cell lung cancer include:
  •  Small cell carcinoma
  • Combined small cell carcinoma

Doctors diagnose this cancer through tests that include:

  • Bone scan
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Non- small cell lung cancer: occurs in almost nine out of ten cases. It is a common type of lung cancer. Its growth rate is slower than SCLC and causes no or few symptoms until the advanced stages.

The three types of non-small cell lung cancer may include:

  • Adenocarcinoma of the lung
  • Large- cell undifferentiated carcinoma
  • Squamous cell

There are subtypes of NSCLC that include sarcomatoid carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma.

Doctors diagnose cancer through tests including:

  • Biopsy
  • CT scan
  • MRI
  • Pulmonary function test

Some rare forms of lung cancer may include:

  • Adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma
  • Salivary gland-type lung carcinoma
  • Lung carcinoids
  • Mesothelioma

Treatments and diagnosis of lung cancer

Doctors recommend several tests to diagnose lung cancer. They suggest treatment plans include:

  • Imaging Test:  through this test presence of an abnormal cell can be seen clearly in a CT scan. Doctors recommend X-rays image in the first instance.
  • Biopsy: through the process, a sample tissue from the lungs can be taken to examine the presence of the cancerous cell. The several methods of biopsy include:
  • Bronchoscopy: to get a closer view of the lungs, a thin tube is called a bronchoscope, with a thin light at its end passes to the throat of the patient. The doctor adds a laser to burn the parts of the tumor that causes obstacle in the airways.
  • Surgery: surgery is the best way to treat a patient at an early stage. It blocks the way to spread the cancerous cell over the body parts. Doctors remove the affected parts of the lungs.
  • Radiation therapy: the process is done to shrink the tumor before surgery. The procedure performs with the help of powerful beams that discharge from high-energy x-rays and proton.
  • Chemotherapy:  Chemo is done either before surgery or when the surgery fails to block the cancerous cells.
  • Immunotherapy: through medicines doctors nourish the immune system of the body to destroy the cancerous cell. This method is done at the advanced stages.

Cura Multispeciality Hospital’s Pulmonology Department

Physicians at Cura recommend visiting at an early stage to start their medical procedure. As soon as the patient experience the uneasiness in breathing, wheezing and, blood in the sputum, medical consultation is a must needed. Our  medical staffs are also there to be taken care of the patients for a quick recovery.