Hyperthyroidism is an affliction of the thyroid. The thyroid is a tiny gland shaped like a butterfly. It is placed on the front of the neck. It generates two primary hormones like tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These two hormones manage how the cells use energy. The thyroid gland operates digestion by releasing hormones. Hyperthyroidism takes place when the thyroid produces a high amount of T4, T3, or both.

Causes  of Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism can occur due to several causes. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves disease, an auto-immune condition. It causes antibodies to speed up the thyroid to secrete a considerable amount of hormones. Graves disease usually happens to women than men. It can be hereditary in a family. There are several causes of hyperthyroidism:

•             Tumours of the testes and ovaries

•             Excessive iodine, a crucial component in T4 and T3

•             The intaking of a large number of tetraiodothyronine through medication or dietary supplements

•             Inflammation of the thyroid or thyroiditis causes leakage of T4 and T3 from the gland

•             Benign tumors of the pituitary gland or thyroid

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism

A hypermetabolic state is a condition when the quantity of T4, T3, or both is high. During this state, the patient can experience:

•             hand tremors

•             rapid heart rate

•             increased blood pressure

•             Sweating frequently

•             Low tolerance of heat

Hyperthyroidism can also cause:

•             Weight loss

•             Bowel movement

•             Irregular menstrual cycle, in women

Hyperthyroidism also causes atrial fibrillation. It is a severe arrhythmia that can lead to strokes and cognitive heart failure.

Several other symptoms of hyperthyroidism include;

•             Inability to concentration

•             Difficulty sleeping

•             Vomiting and nausea

•             Increased hunger

•             Hair loss

•             Nervousness

•             Fine, brittle hair

•             Restlessness

•             Irregular heartbeat

•             Weakness

•             Breast development in men

•             Itching

The important symptoms that need immediate treatment are;

•             Loss of consciousness

•             Dizziness

•             Rapid, irregular heartbeat

•             Shortness of breath

Treatment of Hyperthyroidism

The common treatment of hyperthyroidism include;

• Surgery

Through surgery, a segment or the whole thyroid gland can be extracted. However, one has to start taking thyroid hormone supplements to avoid hypothyroidism. It happens due to an underactive thyroid that discharges insufficient hormones. Furthermore, beta-blockers such as propranolol that help manages sweating, high blood pressure, rapid pulse, and high blood pressure.

• Medication

To stop the thyroid from producing hormones, antithyroid medications such as methimazole (tapazole ). It is a common and well-known treatment.

• Radioactive Iodine

Radioactive iodine is a treatment given to 70 percent of adult patients with hyperthyroidism. Some common aftereffects consist of :

•             Sore throat

•             Changes in the tastes

•             Dry eyes

•             Dry mouths

Precautions are needed after the treatment to prevent spreading the radiation to others.

Diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism

Generally, specialists check the complete medical history and do a physical exam. They look for the common symptoms :

•             Rapid pulse

•             Protruding eyes

•             Weight loss

•             Enlarged thyroid glands

•             High blood pressure

Several tests are performed for further assessment of diagnosis;

• Triglyceride Test

Triglyceride level is also tested. A low triglyceride level can be an indication of a high metabolic rate.

• Ultrasound

Ultrasound is used for measuring the thyroid gland along with its masses. Doctors usually use ultrasound for deciding if a mass is cystic or solid.

• Cholesterol Test

It is common for doctors to check cholesterol levels. Low cholesterol levels can be a symptom of a high metabolic rate. Burning of the cholesterol at a quick pace is due to high metabolism.

• Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Level Test

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hypophysis hormone that energizes the thyroid gland to make hormones. A very low level of TSH can be the first symptom of hyperthyroidism.

Cura Multispeciality Hospital’s Diabetes and Endocrinology Department

Thyroid occurs due to the secretion of the hormone thyroxine. Several treatments are suggested for hyperthyroidism. Medications, radioactive- iodine are used to decrease hormone secretion. If any symptoms like dizziness, shortness of breath, an irregular heartbeat may occur, an immediate consult to the doctor is necessary.    At Cura multispecialty hospital, our talented and professional physicians provide the best, affordable, accessible, healthcare services to our patients.