Diabetic neuropathy refers to nerve damage that may cause due to diabetes. It is a serious complication that may occur in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.  Long-term high blood sugar levels may affect the nerve and lead to damage. Controlling blood sugar may reduce the risk of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy may also occur if diabetes is present with factors like

  • Overweight
  • High blood pressure
  • Cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Exposure with alcohol

Symptoms of Diabetic Neuropathy

Common symptoms of diabetic neuropathy may include:

  • Muscle weakness
  • Bloating
  • Erectile dysfunction.
  • Excessive sweating
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Pain in hands and feet
  • Nausea
  • Indigestion, vomiting
  • Trouble vision
  • Increase in heart rate

Different types of Diabetic Neuropathy

 Neuropathy refers to the dysfunction of the nerves. Nerves can be damaged by long-term disease, chemotherapy, physical injury. There are four types of neuropathy

Peripheral Neuropathy: peripheral neuropathy involves peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves work as a messenger of the body. It sends messages from the central nervous system to different parts of the body, brain, organs. The symptoms include:

  • Numbness
  • Weakness in muscles
  • Muscle cramps

Peripheral neuropathy makes it difficult to wound the heal. This may cause serious infection and in complicated cases, it can lead to amputation.

 

Autonomic Neuropathy: it damages the nerves that may help other organs to functions. The organs and muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system may include:

  • Digestive system
  • Sex organs and Bladder problems
  • Cardiovascular system

Symptoms of autonomic neuropathy may include:

  • Dizziness
  • Urinary problems
  • Sexual problems
  • Sweating
  • indigestion
  • gastroparesis
  • hypoglycemia
  • shortness of breath
  • pain in the jaw, stomach, legs, arm.

Proximal Neuropathy: it is a rare form of diabetic neuropathy. Proximal neuropathy affects the hip, buttock, thigh, and experience severe pain. It is also known as diabetic amyotrophy. The symptoms may include:

  • Pain
  • Stress
  • Fatigue
  • Anxiety
  • Depression

Focal Neuropathy: it damages one or more nerves and causes weakness. It occurs in the hand, torso, head, leg and is very painful.

Symptoms of focal neuropathy include:

  • Aching in the eyes.
  • Numbness
  • Pain
  • Double vision
  • Pain in chest, stomach, lower back, pelvic region

Causes of Diabetic Neuropathy

Uncontrolled high blood glucose and high levels of fats such as triglycerides in the blood due to diabetes may damage the nerves Low levels of vitamins, especially B12 may cause neuropathy. Medicines like Metformin, which is used to control diabetes may also decrease the level of vitamin B12.

Diagnosis and treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy

Doctors may prescribe certain tests to diagnose diabetic neuropathy, the tests may include:

  • Filament Testing
  • Sensory Testing
  • Nerve Conduction Testing
  • Muscle Response Testing
  • Autonomic Testing

Treatment

Diabetic neuropathy has no such treatment. The following steps may help control nerve damage.

  • Slow down the progression by controlling high glucose levels.
  • Regular exercise may relieve pain
  • Reduce risks and complications by restoring healthy life.

Risk Factors and Complications

Risk factors may include:

  • Diabetes may damage the kidneys.
  • Uncontrolled blood sugars may lead to severe complications.
  • Overweight may cause the risk of diabetic neuropathy.
  • Smoking hardens the arteries and reduces blood flow. This may also develop difficulty in healing the wound.

Complications may include:

  • Urinary tract infections
  • Men and women both can develop sexual dysfunction.
  • Diabetes patients may develop gastroparesis that leads to indigestion, constipation, and diarrhea.

Preventions of Diabetic Neuropathy

To prevent diabetic neuropathy, it is significant to control the blood glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol levels. To check the blood glucose and to prevent the damage due to diabetic neuropathy the following steps may help in

  • No to smoking
  • Workout regularly
  • Follow the diabetes-diet
  • Avoid or limit drinking alcohol.

Cura Multispeciality Hospital’s Diabetes and Endocrinology Department

Long-term high blood sugar may cause diabetic neuropathy. It damages the nerves and affects the hip, leg, feet, arm. Diabetic neuropathy may involve several symptoms like fatigue, double vision, eye pain. We at Cura manages blood sugar by using insulin, and medications to control the symptoms. Cura offers psychological and medical support to the patients. We also provide spinal cord stimulation as well as rehabilitation.